PSY K111 Quiz 1 Study Guide

See if you can answer the following questions. The information is in Myers Psychology: Myers in Modules, 6th Ed., Modules 1 through 4, and in the class notes. See also the list of terms for Quiz 1.

Describe the major theoretical approaches to psychology (behavioral, biological, cognitive, humanistic, psychodynamic, evolutionary). On some of the basic dimensions of human nature (nature vs nurture, conscious control vs unconscious forces, behavior only vs internal mental processes, free will vs determinism, similarities vs differences) where does each approach fall?

What are the major branches of psychology (eg, clinical pyschology)? With what type of problem does each branch concern itself (eg, treatment of psychological disorders)? What is the difference between basic and applied research?

How old is psychology as a discipline? Briefly describe the history of psychology in the 20th century.

Describe the scientific method. What techniques do psychologists use to study behavior and mental states? What are the characteristics of a good hypothesis?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the following types of research: archival research, case studies, experimentation, longitudinal studies, naturalistic observation, retrospective studies, and surveys.

Compare and contrast: experimental methods vs non-experimental (correlational) methods, field setting vs laboratory setting, self-report vs direct observation. What makes an experiment an experiment? What conclusions can we draw from experiments that we canít draw from other types of studies?

What is a positive correlation? A negative correlation? What is random assignment and why is it necessary? What is the placebo effect?

Compare and contrast: central nervous system vs peripheral nervous system, autonomic system vs somatic system, sympathetic vs parasympathetic, motor vs sensory, axon vs dendrite, inhibitory vs excitatory, polarized (-70 mV) vs depolarized (above -70 mV, up to about -55 mV) vs hyperpolarized (below -70 mV),

What is the difference between dualism and monism (materialism)? Biological psychologists favor which of the two? What is a homunculus? Has anything like it been found in the operations of the brain? Why are biological psychologists called reductionist? What evidence is there that the mind is a product of the brain?

What are the major "brain scanning" techniques? What is electrical stimulation of the brain? What have we learned from it?

What is the location and function of the following: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, limbic system, brain stem.

What are the three main segments of a neuron? Which direction do signals usually flow in a neuron? How does a neuron carry a signal? How do signals get from one neuron to another?

Describe what is unusual about a split-brain patient. What is lateralization? Why is brain function considered to be lateralized? Why is it considered to be localized? What is sensory and motor mapping (projection)?

Describe a theory of three brains.

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